Hydrochloric Acid is a clear,colorless to slightly yellow liquid with a sharp, pungent and irritating order. It is a strong highly corrosive acid,soluble in water and alcohol but insoluble in hydrocarbons.Trade name Muriatic Acid ,Molecular Wt. 36.45,Concentration 34-36% w/w ,Specific gravity 1.166- 1.171 at 25 .
Hydrochloric acid, also known as muriatic acid, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas. Hydrochloric acid is produced primarily by four basic methods: the chlorination of organic chemicals; the combination of hydrogen and chlorine; the salt-sulfuric acid production process; and, as a co-product in the manufacture of silica. Most hydrochloric acid is produced from the chlorination of organic chemicals with much smaller amounts from the other processes.
Hydrogen chloride (HCL) is a colorless gas. Its aqueous solution is known as hydrochloric acid. Hydrogen chloride or hydrochloric acid is produced by burning hydrogen and chlorine together and is also a by-product of the chlorination of organic compounds.
Hydrochloric acid is a strong, inorganic acid used in almost all sectors of industry; e.g. in production of the plastic PVC, ferric chloride (needed for waste water purification) and steel industry. The concentration and the quality of HCl are the decisive factors for the type of application. It is one of the most important inorganic acids.
Technical hydrochloric acid is used in a large number of applications. Major scope of application consists of metal pickling, ion-exchange regeneration, pH regulation and neutralization of process streams. Hydrogen chloride; as raw material; is also used for the production of numerous inorganic and organic compounds.
Chemical pure hydrochloric acid is mainly used in the pharmaceutical and food industry, for preparation of drinking water and as raw material for consumable products. These applications require a very high quality of hydrochloric acid.
Globally, most of the hydrochloric acid streams are “recycled” in captive consumption. The remaining volume enters the merchant market for applications in various industries.
Acidizing(activation) of petroleum wells,Manufacture of Dyes,phenols and plastics,Manufacture of chemicals intermediates, such as FeCl3, ZnCl2, AlCl3, etc.General Cleaning in households and in commercial, industrial establishments.Material HandlingSpilled hydrochloric acid should be removed immediately by flushing the contamination area with large quantities of water.Employees should never unduly expose their skin to hydrochloric acid. Prolong exposure can cause severe and painful burns.Since the hydrochloric acid fumes settle rather rapidly towards the ground, it must be thoroughly sprayed with water to minimize its irritating effects.
Hydrochloric acid is an important and widely used chemical. The largest end uses for hydrochloric acid are steel pickling, oil well acidizing, food manufacturing, producing calcium chloride, and ore processing.
Steel Pickling Hydrochloric acid is used in pickling operations for carbon, alloy and stainless steels. Steel pickling is the process by which iron oxides and scale are removed from the surface of steel by converting the oxides to soluble compounds. Pickling is required for steel products that undergo further processing such as wire production, coating of sheet and strip, and tin mill products. Hydrochloric acid is used primarily for continuous pickling operations in which hot-rolled strip steel is passed through a countercurrent flow of acid solution.
In addition to steel pickling, hydrochloric acid is used in aluminum etching, metal prefixing for galvanizing and soldering, and metal cleaning.
Oil Well Acidizing Hydrochloric acid is used both to remove rust, scale and undesirable carbonate deposits in oil wells to encourage the flow of crude oil or gas to the well. This use is called “stimulation”. Acidizing is generally done in carbonate or limestone formations by stimulation. An acid solution is injected into the formation, which dissolves a portion of the rock and creates a large pore structure in the formation, increasing its effective permeability and the flow of oil.
Food The food industry uses hydrochloric acid in the processing of a variety of products. A major use of hydrochloric acid by the food industry is for the production of corn syrups such as high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS).
Much of the hydrochloric acid consumed in the HFCS industry is used to regenerate the ion exchange resins that are employed to remove impurities. Hydrochloric acid can also be used to acid-modify cornstarch and to adjust the pH of intermediates, final product and wastewater. The largest use of HFCS is in the production of soft drinks, which accounts for 70-75% of demand.
Hydrochloric acid is also used in other food processing applications including the production of hydrolyzed vegetable protein and soy sauce. It is used in acidulating crushed bones for the manufacture of gelatin and as an acidifier for products such as sauces, vegetable juices and canned goods.
Hydrochloric acid is consumed in the production of artificial sweeteners. It is consumed in the production of lysine, choline chloride (both used primarily as animal feed additives) and citric acid.
Production of Calcium Chloride
Neutralizing hydrochloric acid with limestone (CaCO3) produces calcium chloride. The largest use for calcium chloride is highway deicing with production dependent on weather conditions. Other uses include dust control, industrial processing, oil recovery, concrete treatment and tire ballasting. Calcium chloride is also used in oil recovery products such as drilling muds and work-over/completion fluids.
Hydrochloric acid is consumed in many mining operations for ore treatment, extraction, separation, purification, and water treatment. Significant quantities are used in the recovery of molybdenum and gold. Hydrochloric acid is used to convert high-grade scheelite concentrate (CaWO4) and crude sodium tungstate to tungstic acid, which in turn, can be used to produce tungsten metal and chemicals. Hydrochloric acid is also used in uranium and zirconium processing, solution mining of borate ores, as a pH regulator in the froth flotation of potash ores, and in rare earth extraction from bastnasite.
Aqueous hydrochloric acid is used in a variety of miscellaneous applications. These include recovery of semiprecious metals from used catalysts, use as a catalyst in synthesis, use in catalyst regeneration, pH control, regeneration of ion exchange resins used in wastewater treatment and electric utilities, neutralization of alkaline products or waste materials, and in brine acidification for use in the production of chlorine and caustic soda.
Hydrochloric acid is also used in many other production processes for organic chemicals. It can be used in the production of p-phenylenediamine, polycarbonate resins, bisphenol A, polyvinyl chloride resins, and ethanol (from ethylene).
The pharmaceutical industry consumes hydrochloric acid as a catalyst in synthesis, for pH control, for deionization of water and as a reduction agent (e.g., in the production of ascorbic acid and para-aminobenzoic acid).
Numerous other uses of hydrochloric acid include the manufacture of dyes and pigments; the removal of sludge and scale from industrial equipment; the deliming, tanning and dying of hides by the leather industry; manufacture of permanent wave lotion; the carbonizing of wool; use as a bleaching and dyeing assistant in the textile industry; and the purification of sand and clay.
Hydrochloric acid is a strong inorganic acid that is used in many industrial processes. The application often determines the required product quality.